Jesús Rafael Soto

Jesús Rafael Soto in Penetrable (1973), Parque García Sanabria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, September 1995

Photograph: © Courtesy of Carlos A. Schwartz

Jesús Rafael Soto was a Venezuelan artist, one of the main representatives of kinetic and optical art. Born in Ciudad Bolívar, he studied at the School of Fine Arts in Caracas before moving to Paris, the city where he would reside until his death. In Paris he partnered with a group of abstract artists called Salon des réalités nouvelles. Inspired by the work of Piet Mondrian and Kazimir Malevich, Soto created a series of repetitive paintings, which were composed of simple geometric shapes. In the decade of 1950 it was tried to capture in its series Metamorfosis (1954) an equivalent of the musical seriality. In 1956, the first kinetic structures were created, his work is characterized by integrating in the work the perception of the viewer in the displacement before the object. From the 1960s he designed penetrable and architectural integration works, such as the decoration of the interior of the UNESCO building in Paris (1970), the interior of the Georges Pompidou National Center for Art and Culture in Paris (1976) and the spaces free Soto's work has been exhibited in many public places, including the lounge of the UNESCO building in Paris (1969) and the Forum of the Georges Pompidou Center in Paris (1987). His work inow resides in several museum collections, including the Tate Modern in London, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York and the Museum of Modern Art Jesus Soto in Bolivar, Venezuela.

Jesús Rafael Soto



Black and Light, Sommer & Kohl, Berlin, Germany


Jesús Rafael Soto, Galerie Max Hetzler, Zimmerstrasse, Berlin, Alemania

Galería Cayón: Materia Gris, Galería Cayón, Madrid, Spain

Latitudes: Mestres Latino-americanos na Coleção FEMSA, Instituto Tomie Ohtake, São Paulo, Brazil

Instalações, Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil


Jesús R. Soto, Galería Elvira González, Madrid, Spain

Latitudes: Maestros Latinoamericanos en la Colección FEMSA, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Diagonal, Galería Cayón, Madrid, Spain

Facets, Art Museum of the Americas, Washington, United States

16th Biennale of Sydney, Biennale of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Las Implicaciones de la Imagen, Museo Universitario de Ciencias y Arte, Mexico City, Mexico


Latin American Art in the Berardo Collection, Sintra Museu de Arte Moderna, Sintra, Portugal

Sammlung Gutmann, Haus Konstruktiv, Stiftung für konstruktive und konkrete Kunst, Zurich, Switzerland

Tamaño Real, Galería Cayón, Madrid, Spain

The Geometry of Hope, Grey Art Gallery, New York University, NY,  United States


Jesús Rafael Soto: Visioni in Movimento, Galleria d´Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy

Jesus Rafael Soto: Vision en Movimiento, Fundación PROA, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Estrecho Dudoso, Museo de Arte y Diseño Contemporáneo, San José, Costa Rica

Zéro, Musée d'Art Moderne de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France

Art on the Edge, Omaha, NE, Estados Unidos


Jesús Rafael Soto, Visión en Movimiento, Museo Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico

Jesús Rafael Soto, Venezuela, Molaa Museum of Latin American Art, Long Beach, CA,  United States

Soto: A Construção da Imaterialidade, Museu Oscar Niemeyer, Curitiba, Brazil

Soto: A Construção da Imaterialidade, Instituto Tomie Ohtake, São Paulo, Brazil

Outside Europe: Aus der Sammlung DaimlerChrysler, Daimler Contemporary, Berlin, Germany

Das Progressive, Museum Basel, Haus Konstruktiv, Stiftung für Konstruktive und Konkrete Kunst, Zürich, Switzerland


Jesús-Rafael Soto, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX,  United States

Jesús-Rafael Soto, Galerie Denise René, Espace Marais, Paris, France

Beyond Geometry, Experiments in Form 1940s-70s, Miami Art Museum, Miami, FL,  United States

Attraversare Genova, Percorsi e Linguaggi Internazionali del Contemporaneo, Villa Croce Museo d´Arte Contemporanea, Genoa, Italy

Algorithmische Revolution, Zur Geschichte der Interaktiven Kunst, Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

The Daimler Chrysler Collection, Iziko South African National Art Gallery, Cape Town, South Africa


Jesús-Rafael Soto, Galerie Denise René, Espace Marais, Paris, France

Soto, Galerie Denise René, Rive Gauche, Paris, France

On the Edge: Contemporary Art from the Daimler Chrysler Collection, The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, MI, United States

Aperceptions, Guislain, États d'Art, Paris, France

The Daimler Chrysler Collection, Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany



Arte Múltipla, Galeria 111, Lisbon, Portugal

Moderna Museet C/O Magasin 3, Magasin 3 Stockholm Konsthall, Stockholm, Sweden


El Arte Abstracto y la Galería Denise René, Centro Atlántico de Arte Moderno, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

SITE Santa Fe's Fourth International Biennial, Santa Fe, NM, United States

Accrochage de Groupe, Galerie Denise René, Espace Marais, Paris, Francia

Bienal 50 Anos, Núcleo Histórico, Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil


From Cubism to Minimalism: A selection of Works by World Leading Artists, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Tehran, Iran


Bis 2000 Deutsche und Internationale Kunst Seit 1960, Galerie Neher GmbH & Co. KG, Essen, Germany


Exposição Retrospectiva de Jesús Rafael Soto, SEEC, Casa Andrade Muricy, Curitiba, Brazil

Jesús Rafael Soto, Museo Nacional de Artes Visuales, Montevideo, Uruguay


Jesús Rafael Soto: Retrospectiva, Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Jesús Rafael Soto: Retrospektive, Stiftung für Konkrete Kunst, Reutlingen, Germany

Bienal do Mercosul, Bienal do Mercosul, Porto Alegre, Brazil


Transformers: A Moving Experience, Wellington City Gallery, Wellington, New Zeland

23rd Bienal de São Paulo, Bienal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Colección Permanente: Novas Incorporacións, Colección Fundación Arco, Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea, Santiago de Compostela, Spain


Jesus Rafael Soto, Quadrat Bottrop, Josef Albers Museum, Bottrop, Germany

Konkret Zehn, Kunsthalle Nürnberg, Nuremberg, Germany


Zero, Un Movimiento Europeo, Fundación Juan March, Madrid, Spain


Point, Ligne, Plan, Musée d´Art Contemporain de Montréal, Montreal, Canada


Soto, Charles Cowles Gallery, New York, NY

Ein Anderes Klima: A Different Climate (II), Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany


Soto: Oeuvres Actuelles, Centre Pompidou, Musée National d´Art Moderne, Paris, France


Jesús Rafael Soto, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, NY, United States


Bewogen Beweging, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands